Disclaimer: my opinions on programming languages are based on intuition and casual observations more often than on deep knowledge and experience, so please take everything said below with a grain of salt.
I think Java is definitely the programming language and platform for most applications right now, be it server, desktop or mobile. C#/.NET is comparable and C# as a language may actually be a bit better when it comes to features, but as long as it’s controlled by Microsoft and at the same time Java is more open, less controlled, and the JRE has many implementations, most people and organizations will (or should) choose Java.
But Java is the general purpose language that can satisfy almost any requirements and scale in most directions (if not quite down to scripting).
However, Java has problems as well.